Recognition of years of Chinese view of the world's reflection
mm Yanhuang transferred by the Spring and Autumn
【Note: This is a continuation of the , big and Bo chaos, small office maintenance. So there is a The general public can take a rational look at. No matter how the next national road ahead, after 49 and 49 before the history is need to seriously face the origin.】
1. spirit of the times and new perspectives
History is always a constant reading of new textbooks. people study history, not for hair to be nostalgic, but to reform and optimize their own reality and future direction. Therefore, each generation, and every era of history should be Recognition .1949 own years ago and the modern Chinese spirit of the times is the research model has its own rationality. The new era of China was founded in the spirit of the revolutionary struggle should turn to the pursuit of modernization. Unfortunately, this change in 29 years after becoming a reality. Study the perspective of modern history, There was also correspondingly change. New Perspective biggest difference with the old model is that it is more important from the Field Write down only briefly at a few key issues.
2. How do the characters in the old regime and its revolutionary
need to seize power. For all the old regime, listing the justice and to mobilize the revolutionary forces. which gradually formed a kind of mindset: the old regime without merit. the merits, not the conditions at the time of departure from the careful scientific analysis, put up a theology class, , leave it to the side of the reactionary line. It is the country of China after the Opium War knocking, learn from the West with progressive movement. It opens in China under the feudal system of Western capitalist mode of production with a prelude to the promotion of China development of social productivity. though not without negative effect, but is conducive to the development of capitalism in China, to follow the development trend of Chinese history.
⑵ Late Qing. including the revitalization of commercial, industrial incentives, to encourage the free development of private capital; reform military system, the gradual abolition of the old green camp, anti-Yong, training new troops; Abolishing, do school, study tour awards; Reform Bureaucracy, rectify the official and so on. is a more comprehensive reform, much of the old feudal system reform . is a reform of the nature of capitalism, in line with the trend of historical development, and have a positive impact. Some Western scholars; Despite the corrupt Qing Dynasty, but its existing form still makes sense, it is possible to force him to go through modernization and improvement of ⑶ Nanjing Government. Qing dynasty after the warlords, different decree, the initial realization of the Nanjing government of national unity. and she rescheduled the New Testament, tariff autonomy, building three years to accomplish something. and the imperialist countries have signed Treaty of Friendship, Commerce. it might not touch the fundamental rule of imperialism in China, but it reduced its privileges in China, in line with the aspirations of the people, under the historical conditions at that time had definite progress. She makes the imperialist countries to make concessions, China won tariff autonomy to set tax rates since, free, customs, and basic mastery and control of the customs administrative power. before the war years (1927-1937), economic development and industrial and agricultural production has been restored and developed .1936 year, the GDP reached a record high. transport has changed. years built eight thousand kilometers of railway, opened up a civil aviation. If you do not lay the basis for decades of economic construction, China has eight years of war in To achieve the final victory will be even more difficult.
⑷ War. The traditional view that the KMT never negative and anti-Japanese resistance to the doctrine, active anti-communist; liberated the battlefield as a major battlefield; War leadership is *** the other, not convincing. should say. A war, two battlefields, three regimes. China's Anti-Japanese War, the whole Chinese ethnic groups, all classes of the war together, and not at the same time there is a foreign war, a civil war. There are two anti-Japanese war, this is true. two different strategic position of the battlefield. Kuomintang army offensive in the front of the Japanese strategy, the positive charge of field operations. the Eighth Route and New Fourth Army in the back or flank the Japanese responsible for battlefield operations behind enemy lines. two separate battlefields, the implementation of different strategies and tactics. Kuomintang army fighting, mainly regular warfare, positional warfare. Eighth Route and New Fourth Armies Zeyi main guerrilla warfare. liberated the independence war, the deterioration of relations with the KMT the increase. between the two battlefields, there are contradictions and struggles, and sometimes very sharp. War period, there are three types of Chinese soil Regime: The Nationalist regime, liberated and occupied areas of the puppet regime of the colonial regimes. Kuomintang Chiang Kai-shek Anti-Japanese National United Front for a certain role to play. because they hold state power, without their consent and participation, it can not form a Japanese national united front, can not form a national war of resistance.
⑸ Emperor. He is Manchu imperial family in more accepting of new ideas of the emperor, life is the most important political activity in the Reform Movement. He accepted all the recommendations of reformers, there is a high degree of commitment to political reform. In fact, forge ahead if there is no dynasty, it will not have the Hundred Days Reform. He is trying to follow the example of China's first modern foreign to the liberal reform the Emperor of China. he has the serious weaknesses, but does not prove that he is just a Westernization of the emperor. It was by analyzing the dynasty during which the status and Chikamasa The main results, stated he is a patriotic bourgeoisie of the emperor. This new point of view, worthy of note. Guangxu failure, natural reason. If conditions change, dynasty, without fail, go along the path of political reform in China How will modern development? worth considering.
⑹ Li. can not simply say that he is a traitor. diehards at the time than he is enlightened. He dared to face the facts, unwilling to die in an attempt to self-reliance. He advocated learning from the West's advanced technology, the founder of a group of military industry, which is resistance to foreign aggression side. has to a certain extent, prevent and limit the expansion of foreign economic aggression forces, delaying the process of China's semi-colonial, the development of national capitalism played a useful role. He advocated by the Western capitalist Westernization of education to develop human resources, which is the rise of bourgeois power, there is a facilitating role. in the struggle to reform and conservative, he out in the wait and see pragmatic, and more are secretly sympathetic to the Reform. In the Hundred Days Reform, he supported the revitalization of industry and commerce, support waste stereotyped, Xing school, to reform the political system are not entirely against it. but he signed a large number of the diplomatic aspects of the unequal treaties, is guilty.
⑺ Yuan. can no longer simply that he is a Qieguotaidao. for him in the late Republic of China under the specific historical conditions of China's political, military, economic, cultural, diplomatic, all aspects of modern education process the main role played by, it should be affirmed. First of all, created by the Northern Yuan government, should see its future generations, between the Far East and the world pattern of impact. and recognizes, which was the inevitable result of social and historical development. forces at that time and people tend to contrast, the Sun can not compete with Yuan Shikai's. Yuan Sun is the political power to replace the result of competition. and Sun advocated the organization of the interim government and the development of the , nothing to do with conditions very different, can not be achieved. Second, economic reform from the Late Qing to the Republic of China, the capitalist system is replaced by a turning point in the history of feudal system, introduced during this period Yuan capitalist policies is a reflection of the historical development of general trend. In addition to the economic reform measures (such as the development of transport, the establishment of infrastructure, financial consolidation, reform of the currency), the Yuan has set up schools re-education, new educational modern big way, pay attention to enlighten the people. In addition, Yuan also advanced diplomatic modernization, led the recovery of many rights movement. Yuan in people's minds a long time, not fully figure out the basic facts, or preconceived notions and of the conclusions. Objectively speaking, Yuan Diplomatic Thought and Practice, has broken the principle of the late Qing Yi exclusive system is basically a positive weak compromise and struggle a combination of diplomacy theory and practice. As to the inevitable progress of a price to pay, from the perspective of historical development, should not be attributed to the Yuan people. Meanwhile, the Late Qing Dynasty on the cultural and political easing policy, Yuan positive role played by the objective should also be sure.
Yuan emperor certainly is not right, reactionary. but should not negate his entire political activities. the nature and different with Zhang Xun Restoration not to be surprised. China for thousands of oriental despotism tradition, too deep. so for every country to get the temptation to live. From Hongxian Huang Di, the chairman and Great Helmsman, just a few. The difference is that, given a heavier form of change to the heavy content, quality gradually improved, and even theory. time is getting longer and longer, but not over the addiction to death.
⑻ Soong. from the 20th century, 20 years to 40 years, he in finance and foreign relations and other fields, have a significant impact, the KMT regime's internal affairs and foreign policy-makers and key implementers. But his research, but it is not dare to touch the subject of mainland scholars. In recent years only a little breakthrough on the diplomatic front, especially in his work during the war, to be sure. Pacific War broke out, China has made in the diplomatic a remarkable achievement, Soong made an important contribution to this. in the diplomatic activities, he insist on safeguarding China's sovereignty. as he put Hong Kong, Kowloon and the United Kingdom and other concession in China, returned to China after the war, as the inevitable ending. his diplomatic activities, but also for China's international status after the war laid the foundation. the original beginning of the Sino-Japanese War, the U.S. government policy toward China is quite negative. The Pacific War broke out, TV Soong negotiated in carrying out activities in the United States success achieved, this cooperation between China and the U.S. war to establish and develop positive role to play. This man has a considerable period of time some progress has been the tendency played a positive role, is worthy of further study.
3. Reform or Revolution
over half a century, the mainstream ideology in China, the revolution was seen as the driving force behind social development, is paramount. This revolutionary, natural in a narrow sense, refers to the class struggle and violence to seize power . From this point of view, the peasant uprising of the previous are positive attitude, and as the main line of historical research, for the improvement, is very critical. However, the supremacy of the revolution, is questionable [25,26]. First that Many phenomena, does not have the necessity. when they are promoted as produce two different styles of political tradition: First Anglo-American empiricism, weight improvement, advancing inch by inch, spiral, cool Feats; the other is represented by France, the European idealism, easily revolution, Hurricane processes [ ,],[catch up. Finally, look at the world today. nearly half a century, peace and development become the theme. And the worship of violent revolution, while filling some of the region into a and become one of the causes of terrorism.
⑴ on the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom. The traditional view that he is the first time in modern history to farmers as the main character with a bourgeois democratic revolution. it represents the masses of the people of China anti-feudal, anti-foreign aggression and political demands, the general direction of progress, the nature of justice. Recently, someone made a detailed analysis on this . Taiping There are three achievements: a tremendous shock to the entire feudal order; Although does not exceed the peasant uprising in the form of the frame, but reveal the tendency of capitalist modernization; not dare to resist the Qing Dynasty, but also dare to resist gun ships and vigorous foreign invaders. but he has his faults, it should be realistic recognition. First, It does not bring about the liberation of the peasants, but for a certain name, the farmers are still bound under the feudal system of exploitation. its capital in Nanjing after the decision to implementation of the feudal landlord class, land tenure. Second, it does not make farmers of political freedom, not to establish the real power of peasants. has established a theocratic monarchy combined with authoritarian rule. Hong When the rebel garrison Guiping stone feet, Temple on the set of 15. to the founding of Togo, to 36 by the Legislative Palace. Tianjing to the capital, augmented by a further set of 88 harem. in nation-building when he made his son Hong Tiangui for the child the Lord, to ascend the throne. Yong in Guangxi When the state to decide who seized political power, active, and Leidai hereditary. Hong ruling, legislation no chapter outline disorders, renew, cynical. Taiping Heavenly Kingdom of God is to implement the right to rule. If it unified the country, China will be back to the dark period of history. The third , Taiping not represented or establish new relations of production. Fourth, it is not an analysis of Confucian culture as opposed to the mainstream of traditional Chinese culture, society at that time and later had a negative impact. Youyi Sibu Xiang Catholic to do signs, not for the national psychology.
⑵ understanding of Tseng Kuo-fan, said here on more convenient. since the liberation of the traditional view of Tseng Kuo-fan was completely negative, that he is foreign to surrender, internal counter-revolutionary massacre traitor executioner. In recent years, this view against the increasingly commentators, the evaluation is basically over with . First of all, Tseng defeated the Taiping Heavenly Kingdom, to avoid the Chinese history back to the dark ages theocracy. Second He is the Beginning of Modern China, who. Westernization Movement is the first modern history of the Movement. and its sponsors, advocates, and practitioners is Tseng. He was the first planning to set up China's first military facility mm Anqing by the Ordnance. He is not satisfied with hand-made modern boats cannon to send the first study in the United States of Yung Wing, the United States to make the machine run the machine purchased in preparation for the establishment of modern machine industry. He co-founded with Li Jiangnan Manufacture Bureau. He also promoted the development of science and technology and education in the modernization of .1872 to the United States sent abroad, opened to the West to send students of our history. He promoted the building of China's navy, for the manufacture of ships from the Navy establishment, recruitment and training of sailors, to the navy and the naval articles of association to raise funds for the formulation, have made a lot of exploration. after the development of the Navy are essentially the blueprint for the development according to Zeng. He of China Modern Movement, not only the Beginning of the first of the power, but also to make China's modernization path towards a very important step.
⑶ for the Boxer Rebellion. a new point of view, it is not a progressive trend of history. China old peasant war was over .20 to Taiping century, the bourgeoisie has been the political arena, the farmers can not alone transform China. Boxer Rebellion in the anti-imperialist, but also reject the capitalist mode of production of modern science and technology, against the all with the said to be regressive and reactionary history.
⑷ the nature of the Hundred Days Reform, no big change. but there are two views, it is noteworthy. One is that it is the bourgeois democratic revolution. it is pursuing a bourgeois constitutional monarchy dictatorship, the bourgeois reform movement is the essence of the landlord class to seize power is a preview of Revolution and reformism, and are essentially different. another point of view, it is the improvement or reform of the bourgeoisie. because the reformists do not agree bottom-up approach to launch a revolution that overthrew the Qing Dynasty, it can not be called revolutionary. But the improvements can not be confused with the reformist. can not be modified under any conditions are called reformism. the Revolution despite opposition, but Under certain conditions, can be transformed.
4. open and closed
modern capitalist mode of production first in the UK, and this is the result of many factors . history to say, the occurrence of the Industrial Revolution is inevitable, but the place where, when, it is the result of historical events improvise. It can only happen in such makeshift occurred in countries, and then spread to the world. have the necessary conditions for more countries to accept industry Revolution also more rapid; and the less qualified the country to receive more for the delay; acceptable way, also show differences large and small. is absurd. particularly in China, the arrogance of the heavenly, the Opium War and the British and French troops knocked unconscious, the Sino-French War in 1884 also knocked unconscious, until the Sino-Japanese War in 1894 banged about, only a body Lueqian to Boxer, Boxer did wake up in China, said that it would spontaneously give birth to capitalism, real estate, really balderdash! different point of view, is true. First of all, her door is closed. This is her Chinese centered, stubborn arrogant mentality, are closely related. The closure of 600 years of hurt us, so we were thrown far behind the trend in world history. In modern times, has hindered the development of capitalism in China, and the introduction and development of science and technology. Second, thousands of years of our material civilization, spiritual civilization and institutions of civilization, are closed with a distinctive mark. often too deeply in love After the failure, there are thousands living on the territory of Kazakhstan to the present . grew to 12 million people, known as the peasant economy. talking about is still the Qing Dynasty in Shaanxi dialect, do not understand modern Chinese. It can be said that the closed nature of modern civilization and live specimens. contact in the open country the tremendous changes in the past 20 years shows how important it is open to development .
Opium War, from the perspective of the revolution, the imperialist aggression against China and China's War of Aggression. This is no doubt. But look at the history of the world, from a development perspective, but The advanced modern Western civilization, and China closed the collision between civilization and backwardness. two civilizations, their territories, there must be a battles . the latter's failure was inevitable. paid a terrible price, but accidentally got a lifeline, opening up and modernization, so that we gradually awakening from the sink .1840 mm1978, China's open door has been forced. or even adults, Deng said, . open the consciousness is gradually improving in practice. unequal treaties signed after the Opium War, naturally the defeat. but there are many unequal treaties, in fact, sent by their own door. is due to ignorance, the Qing officials and do not understand diplomatic rules to allow people to Mongolia. these bitter facts, but also teach us to understand the importance of opening up.
for the New Culture Movement, the traditional view of her outstanding nature of the political revolution. affirmed the new view in the new cultural movement and the May Fourth Movement, under the premise of mutual promotion, focusing on the May Fourth Movement salvation reflected in the theme, the theme of enlightenment and the New Culture Movement and the assimilation of the collision. enlightenment of the new culture movement started soon after had to suffer the salvation of anti-imperialist political movement, the two soon merge together. Initially, the Enlightenment and the momentum gained by the national salvation movement, the Enlightenment, in turn, provided to the Salvation ideas, talents and teams. but soon overwhelmed enlightenment salvation. salvation of the situation, the state the interests of the suffering of hungry people, overwhelming everything, overwhelmed the intellectual freedom, equality, democracy, civil rights and all kinds of wonderful ideals and needs overwhelm the individual dignity and rights of the individual attention and respect. particularly in the salvation of the revolutionary tide, in the difficult long-term political and military struggle, the officers and men came in with the farmers and peasants fought together in the environment, the concept of democracy and enlightenment are some of peasant small producers squeeze out the ideological and psychological structure, took the opportunity to revive feudalism.
New Culture Movement is the first time in modern history the great ideological liberation movement, there have been short of contending situation. liberation is to break through the shackles of feudalism, but also an open. contending is open, She was able to occur because the country was not unified, and as the Warring States period. as long as the unified, oriental despotism in this country, there can be a real contending.
5. also predecessors to have been Modern face of historical figures
, in the contemporary been distorted, altered the most serious, than Hu Shi and Lu Xun had. on Hu's so-called useless, wicked people! This is Hu?!, in turn, on Lu Xun, then take the crown of a Ding Ding scary, perfect, resourceful now! Mr. nether world to know about that approval? can not help first question to ask, why is this? criticism Hu is a warning shot, knocking Tiger Town. clean up all the scholars on the mainland too, immobility, subservience. deification of Lu Xun, the subject by the . it is intellectuals, but it is a do not have a heart. also previous to its original feature, when? predecessors, should not according to the needs of modern people to expect, but starting from the conditions he lived to see his role in the development of history . make political and academic (including literature, art) from different perspectives. political factors, will gradually fade with the development of history. And the charm of the academic, but it is eternal.
⑴ first look at Hu.
① political performance needs analysis. Take the violent conflict. . He believed in positivism, not in favor of setting any *** there is no hatred. He said to himself, his life did not write critical Marxism, communism, critical articles , while the opposition KMT article was written. In his New Moon and other characters, once to promote , bribetaker better than clean government, out to help the government help. but raise the bail, the students, but also personally talked to jen . the relationship between Hu Shi and very delicate. can not say he has no political ambitions, but he clung tightly academic research. habits of a lifetime is not off rogue Chiang Kai-shek, who is actually playing on top of Hu in the shares of the palm, but Hu is not clear on this point. scholar of the tragedy is here.
② Hu's achievements. In the May Fourth Movement, he advocated literary improvement, promotion of the vernacular, personal liberation, emancipation of women, against the feudal ethics, etc. , a significant influence. single take imitation of the ancients, should pay attention to grammar, not for no groaning disease are advised to hackneyed set of words, not typical, do not speak antithesis, not to avoid saying folk characters. not only that time, literature played a significant role in promoting development, that is, get the present situation, have great practical significance. Hu advocated learning from the West, he said, ; Just think, how Japanese imperialist aggression hid for nearly 60 years of strenuous self-improvement? bundles of unequal treaties, why could not the free development of Japan? Man of people willing to bow to the rich learning organization and methods is the fundamental spirit of the pursuit of truth. ] he modern Westerners, especially Western scholars since the nineteenth century the history of scientific method to organize thousands of years of Chinese thirty-four historical and academic, to its dregs, its essence, the true colors shown by . < br> ③ problem and doctrine of the dispute. founding, has been seen as Hu against the spread of Marxism in China and evidence. This is an injustice. Hu's article , written and directed by the motivation to, is the head of the Department Anfu , pro-Japanese military's Don Han Jian Wang. such a person, it has also advocated shameless politicians can easily be harmful to do all things difficult the study and solve problems. vain effort to study the costs which addresses specific issues. All in favor of some, and some slight differences. . Hu's indictment, is completely out of context later generations, the result of wanton speculation. I've got two surprises: First, all kinds of evil things. diversified, it means to study the problem as the center, do not adhere to a doctrine, have all learned to solve the problem. It do not coincide with Hu? Hu article 80 years later, in the meaning of these realities, I fear, Hu Li, Sirs, would not dream of it.
④ Academic Pursuits. He has a very brilliant exposition, careful pondering, ever been. First, Bo and refined . scholars, both broad, but also deep. profound respect, is his special knowledge. broad, the search of his next Expo. broad to almost all-knowing, deep dimension to his almost only use, and no one can . Bo helped fine, second is the ; they can say is the heart to hand to the Dharma. seeking truth, seeking evidence of ground. not the slightest wish is struggling, do not scribble, give an example, establish a permit, the next conclusion is not struggling. and is calm, calm, open mind to observe. objectively unreasonable examine all the facts and evidence , put aside their prejudices and to obey the evidence, and gave himself from the people. relief is quiet study, Mo jump to conclusions. Fifth, under the wise kung fu stupid. people There was not a domineering shelf. this point is to get this point of view, but also quite valuable. Third, meticulous scholarship. Fourth, ; tolerance is more important than freedom.
⑵ look at Lu Xun. can be said that one of the most controversial figures. So far the academic factions still hold its reasoning, the differences can be seen everywhere. Xun scholars in Taiwan have been efforts to play down the political tendency to them as traditional literati research. Japanese academics influenced by the mainland. Xun study of some Western scholars, with an obvious anti-Communist political tendency ...